The umbrella term "Aggregates" encompasses construction materials typically subdivided into 2 major subsets - Sand & Gravel and Crushed Stone.
Construction aggregates are used for roadbed and site stabilization and as a basic raw material in producing cement, asphalt and concrete. The total annual US consumption of construction aggregates of 2.8 billion tons is equivalent to 9 thousand tons per person. Construction aggregates are used to build the foundations of modern life including highways, bridges, homes, schools and sidewalks. The type of aggregates available in different regions of the country reflect millions of years of geological forces such as volcanic and glacial activity along with the effects of rivers, streams and wind.
The US Geological Survey estimates that about 1.8 billion tons of crushed stone was consumed in the United States during 2023. The largest share of this (~70%), was limestone and dolomite; followed by granite (~13%) and a variety of other materials such as traprock, sandstone and quartzite. Stone is quarried, crushed and then marketed by size.
The USGS estimates that about 1.1 billion tons of sand and gravel was consumed in the United States during 2023. The distribution of sand and gravel across the country is a result of glacial deposits, river and stream channels, and river flood plains. Sand & gravel generally requires less processing than crushed stone.
Note - quantities above are in US short tons = 1 ton = 2,000 lbs.
Geological forces create stone, gravel and sand. Basic facts about Aggregates.